Urology is a surgical specialty, covering the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the kidneys, ureters, adrenal glands, bladder, prostate and male reproductive organs. It also focuses on surgical and medical diseases of the male and female urinary tract system.
The urinary and reproductive tracts are closely linked, and disorders of one often affect the other. Thus, a major spectrum of the conditions managed in urology exists under the domain of genitourinary disorders. Urology combines the management of medical (i.e., non-surgical) conditions, such as urinary tract infections and benign prostatic hyperplasia, with the management of surgical conditions such as bladder or prostate cancer, kidney stones, congenital abnormalities, traumatic injury, and stress incontinence.
Urology has traditionally been on the cutting edge of surgical technology in the field of medicine, including minimally invasive robotic and laparoscopic surgery, laser-assisted surgeries, and a host of other scope-guided procedures. Urologists are trained in open and minimally invasive techniques, employing real-time ultrasound guidance, fiber-optic endoscopic equipment, and various lasers in the treatment of multiple benign and malignant conditions. In addition, urologists are pioneers in the use of robotics in laparoscopic surgery. Urology is closely related to (and urologists often collaborate with the practitioners of) oncology, nephrology, gynaecology, andrology, pediatric surgery, colorectal surgery, gastroenterology, and endocrinology.
Urology is one of the most competitive and highly sought-after surgical specialties for physicians. Subspecialties may include: urologic surgery, urologic oncology and urologic oncological surgery, endourology and endourologic surgery, urogynecology and urogynecologic surgery, reconstructive urologic surgery, minimally invasive urologic surgery, pediatric urology and pediatric urologic surgery, transplant urology, voiding dysfunction, neurourology, androurology and sexual medicine.
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Endourology is a minimally invasive technique available to treat kidney stones. Stones may be extracted or fragmented using tiny instruments through natural body channels such as the urethra, bladder and ureter.
Male infertility refers to a male's inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female. In humans it accounts for 40-50% of infertility. It affects approximately 7% of all men.
Erectile dysfunction (ED), also known as impotence, is the inability to get and maintain an erection. Erectile dysfunction is a very common condition, particularly in older men. It is estimated that half of all men between the ages of 40 and 70 will have it to some degree.
Urinary tract stones begin to form in a kidney and may enlarge in a ureter or the bladder. Depending on where a stone is located, it may be called a kidney stone, ureteral stone, or bladder stone.
The prostate is a walnut-sized gland found only in men. The prostate grows naturally with age, usually without problems. In some men, the enlarged prostate compresses the urethra, making urination difficult and causing benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
Prostate cancer occurs when abnormal cells develop in the prostate. These abnormal cells can continue to multiply in an uncontrolled way and sometimes spread outside the prostate into nearby or distant parts of the body. Prostate cancer is generally a slow growing disease and the majority of men with low grade prostate cancer live for many years without symptoms and without it spreading and becoming life-threatening. However, high grade disease spreads quickly and can be lethal.
A penile prosthesis is another treatment option for men with erectile dysfunction. These devices are either malleable (bendable) or inflatable.
A vascular access is a surgically created vein used to remove and return blood during hemodialysis. An arteriovenous (AV) fistula is a connection, made by a vascular surgeon, of an artery to a vein. An AV graft is a looped, plastic tube that connects an artery to a vein.
Vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) is the most common acquired fistula of the urinary tract and has been known since ancient times. It is a free communication between the urinary bladder and the vagina. The urine from the bladder freely flows into the vaginal vault, leading to continuous leakage of urine. Ureterovaginal fistula is a communication between the distal ureter and the vagina. Vesicovaginal and ureterovaginal fistulas are perhaps the most feared complications of female pelvic surgery. More than 50% of such fistulas occur after hysterectomy for benign diseases such as uterine fibroids, menstrual dysfunction, and uterine prolapse.
Urologic Oncology refers to cancer of the prostate, bladder or kidney, as well as testicular cancer. Thousands of men and women are diagnosed with these each year.
It is a surgical procedure that removes the foreskin (the loose tissue) covering the glans (rounded tip) of the male organ. It is a safe procedure which is done by a trained, experienced practitioner. It is done when the infant is in stable health. Circumcision may be performed for religious or cultural reasons or for health reasons. It is known to reduce the risk for cancer, urine infections and HIV.
Pediatric urology is a surgical subspecialty of medicine dealing with the disorders of children's genitourinary systems. Pediatric urologists provide care for both boys and girls ranging from birth to early adult age. The most common problems are those involving disorders of urination, reproductive organs and testes.
Female Urology specializes in treating any and all urological disorders that a woman may have, such as: Overactive Bladder, Incontinence (leaky bladder), Prolapse (dropped bladder or other pelvic organ), Cancer, Infection, Bladder Disorders and Bladder Pain.